1、 Backhoe excavator
Backhoe type is the most common, backward down, forced cutting. It can be used for excavation below the shutdown working surface. The basic operation methods are: Excavation at the end of the trench, excavation at the side of the trench, excavation in straight lines, excavation in curves, excavation in a certain angle, excavation in ultra deep trench and excavation of trench slopes, etc.
2、 Shovel digger
The shovel action form of the front shovel excavator. It is characterized by "forward upward, forced soil cutting". The front shovel has a large excavation force and can excavate the soil above the shutdown surface. It is suitable to excavate the boring foundation pit with a height of more than 2m, but the up and down ramps must be set. The bucket of the front shovel is larger than the bucket of the backhoe excavator with the same equivalent. It can excavate the first to the third kind of soil with water content no more than 27%. It can cooperate with the dump truck to complete the whole excavation and transportation operation, and can also excavate large dry foundation pit and mound. According to the different excavation route and the relative direction of the transport vehicle, the excavation method of the front shovel excavator has the following two methods: forward excavation, lateral unloading; forward excavation, reverse unloading.
3、 Dragline digger
A dragline excavator is also called a dragline excavator. Its excavation features are: backward downward, self weight cutting. It is suitable for excavation of class I and II soil below the shutdown surface. When working, the inertia force is used to throw out the bucket, and the excavation is far away, with larger excavation radius and depth, but not as flexible and accurate as backhoe. It is especially suitable for excavation of large and deep foundation pit or underwater excavation.
4、 Grab excavator
Grab excavator is also called grab excavator. Its excavation features are: "straight up and straight down, cutting soil with self weight". It is suitable for the excavation of class I and II soil below the shutdown surface, and it is commonly used for the excavation of foundation pit and caisson in soft soil area. It is especially suitable for digging deep and narrow foundation pit, dredging old channels, digging silt in water, etc., or loading loose materials such as gravel and slag, etc. There are two excavation methods: trench side excavation and positioning excavation. If the grab is made into grid strip shape, it can also be used for loading ore block, wood chip, wood, etc. in the wood yard.