Use Skills of Excavators in Various Operations
1. Excavator operation technology:
First of all, we need to confirm the surroundings. Rotary operation, the surrounding obstacles, terrain to be aware of, safe operation; operation, to confirm the track's front and rear direction, to avoid overturning or impact; try not to face the final drive direction of excavation, otherwise easy to damage the walking motor or hose; operation, to ensure full contact between the left and right tracks and the ground, improve the dynamic stability of the machine.
2. Effective mining methods:
When the bucket cylinder and connecting rod, bucket rod cylinder and bucket rod are 90 degrees each other, the excavation force is the greatest; when bucket teeth and ground are kept at 30 degrees angle, the excavation force is the best, that is, the cutting resistance is the smallest; when using bucket rod to excavate, the angle range of bucket rod should be guaranteed between 45 degrees in front and 30 degrees in back. At the same time, the use of boom and bucket can improve the excavation efficiency.
3. Excavating rocks:
The use of buckets to excavate rocks will cause greater damage to the machine, should be avoided; must be excavated, according to the direction of cracks in the rock to adjust the position of the body, so that the bucket can be smoothly shoveled into and excavated; to insert bucket teeth into the rock cracks, excavation with the excavating force of bucket rod and bucket (should pay attention to the slippage of bucket teeth); not fractured rocks, should be broken first and then use bucket excavation.
4. Slope leveling operation:
When plane dressing is carried out, the machine should be laid flat on the ground to prevent the body from shaking. It is very important for plane dressing to control the speed of both arms and bucket rods in coordination with each other.
5. Loading operations:
The body should be in a stable horizontal position, otherwise it is difficult to control the rotary unloading accurately, so as to prolong the operation cycle time; the body and truck should keep an appropriate distance to prevent the tail of the body from colliding with the truck when doing 180 degrees of rotation; the left rotary loading should be carried out as far as possible, so that the vision is wide and the operation efficiency is high, and the rotation angle should be grasped correctly, so as to reduce the time used for the rotary position of the truck. In order to shorten the boom lifting time and have a good sight, the forests are lower than the excavators. Firstly, sand and gravel are loaded, and then large stones are placed, which can reduce the impact on the truck.
6. Working in soft areas or in water:
When working in soft soil zone, we should know the degree of soil compactness, and pay attention to limit the excavation scope of buckets to prevent landslides, landslides and other accidents as well as deep car body subsidence.
When working in water, attention should be paid to the allowable depth range of the car body (water surface should be below the center of the chain wheel); if the horizontal plane is high, the lubrication of the slewing bearing will be poor due to the entry of water, the engine fan blades will be damaged by water shock, and the electrical circuit components will be short-circuited or broken due to the invasion of water.
7. Lifting operation:
When the hydraulic excavator is used for hoisting operation, it should confirm the surrounding conditions of the hoisting site, use high-strength hoisting hook and wire rope, and use special hoisting device as far as possible when hoisting; the mode of operation should be micro-operation mode, and the action should be slowly balanced; the length of the hoisting rope is appropriate, too long will make the hoisting object sway larger and difficult to accurately control; the position of the shovel should be correctly adjusted to prevent the wire rope from swinging. Slip off; construction personnel try not to close to lifting objects, in order to prevent danger due to improper operation.
8. Steady operation method:
When working, the stability of the machine can not only improve the working efficiency and prolong the life of the machine, but also ensure the safety of operation (putting the machine on a flat ground); the stability of the driving sprocket at the back is better than that at the front, and it can prevent the final transmission from being impacted by external forces; the wheelbase of the crawler on the ground is always larger than that of the wheelbase, so the forward working stability is good, and the lateral operation should be avoided as far as possible. To keep the excavation point close to the machine to improve stability and excavator; if the excavation point is far away from the machine, resulting in the center of gravity moving forward, the operation is unstable; the lateral excavation is less stable than the forward excavation, and if the excavation point is far from the center of the machine body, the machine will be more unstable, so the excavation point and the center of the machine should maintain appropriate distance to make the operation balanced and efficient.
The depreciation life of excavators is 10 years, but basically after 5000 hours, various problems will arise. Therefore, besides the maintenance in the young and middle-aged period, more attention should be paid to the method of prolonging the life after 5000 hours. So what methods can prolong the service life of excavators?
1. Correct use of excavators, strict implementation of safety technical operating rules, target cost management of mechanical equipment, linking the operator's economic benefits with excavator usage fees (such as fuel, maintenance, maintenance, materials, tools, etc.), changing the excavator driver's passive routine maintenance equipment to active routine maintenance.
2. Reduce the invisible wear and tear of excavator caused by environmental climate, that is to say, reduce the influence of environmental factors on its service life. Because most of the construction machinery is open-air operation, the work site often changes, so its performance is greatly affected by the temperature, environment, climate and other factors of the work site. Long-term fixed operation of machinery, must have a shutdown room (shed), or take the upper cover, under the use of wooden mattress maintenance measures to reduce the sun, rain, rust caused by invisible wear and tear. Many construction units neglect the impact of environmental factors on the use of machinery (environmental temperature is too low, it will cause disastrous consequences for machinery). Failure to take appropriate protective or adaptive measures results in reduced mechanical performance, shortened service life and even accidents.
Third: Regular maintenance of excavators is the key to prolong their life. Loaders in Regulations for Maintenance of Road Construction Machinery of the Ministry of Communications